Types of Almonds

Almonds are Pomological divided into Two Groups:
a) Bitter almonds,
b) Sweet almonds
The bitter almonds are poisonous because they contain cyanidric acid and they are not for eating.Bitter almonds are used to extract almond oil. The sweet almonds have little or no cyanide acid.

Sweet Almonds are Divided into Four Groups According to the State of the Shell Break:
Manually fragile almonds: They have thin Shell. The yield reaches about 70%.
Chios Almond: This type of almond can break with teeth.The yield reaches about % 50.
Solid shells: It's very difficult to break shell with teeth.The yield reaches about 40%
Stone almonds: Since its shell is very hard, their internal yield is low (18-30%).

TYPES OF ALMONDS
As a result of the research carried out in Turkey in the Aegean region,some native species of almonds were discovered. Some of these studies are listed as one of the most qualified.
Below are some important local and foreign varieties of almonds.

Local Types of Almond
48-1
It grows very firmly,it is early type and it grows in the first half of February.It is a type that is not self-inflicted and requires pollinators.Pollinators are Akbadem, 48-3, 48-3 and Hacı Alibey.Badem.In the shell weighs 3.95 g, the inner almond weighs 1.50 g, and the yield is 37.97%. The inner almonds are 24.51 mm long and 13.47 mm wide. The double almond yield is about 6.67%.
Akbadem
It grows very firmly. It is an early type of almond that is not self-inflicted. The Pollinators are 48-1, 48-3, 48-4 and Hacı Alibey.İn the shell weighs 4.37 g, the inner almond is 1.80 g. The inner almonds are 25.87 mm long and wide 13.07 mm, and the yield is 26. 67%. The yield of double almond is 35.17%.The shell is thin and gives great fruits.Inner almonds  also have very good quality.
Hacı Alibey
It forms a medium strong tree. It is early type. It is type that is not self-inflicted and requires pollinators.The questioners are 48-1, 48-3, 48-4 and Akbadem. In the shell weighs 3.27. The inner almond weighs 1.15 g, and the yield is 35.17%. The double almond yield is 26.67%. The inner almond has a length of 25.87 mm and a width of 13.07 mm. Its efficiency is very good and its tendency of periodicity is almost negligible.
Gülcan
Forms medium-sized trees. It is a temporary type, which is not self-inflicted and needs foreign pollinators. The pollınators are 101-9 and 101-13. The almond in the shell weighs 3.04 g and is 23.4 mm long and 16 is wide, 31 mm. Its yield is 27.96%, while the yield of double almond is 7.5-13.3%. Inner almonds weigh 0.85 g. The length is 20.98 mm and 12.75 mm wide. Its efficiency is very good and is resistant to cancer of the almond branch
101-9
Forms a strong tree. It is a type that is not self-inflicte and needs foreign pollinators. The pollinators are 101-13 and Gülcan 1.Almond in the shell weighs 3.20 g, the inner almonds weigh 1.02 g, and its yield is 31.88% .The yield of double almond is 6.67%. The length of the inner almond is 21.70 mm and the width is 11.99 mm.
01-13
It forms strong trees. It is not a self-inflicted and it needs foreign pollinators. Pollinators are 101-9 and Gülcan 1. Badem in shell, weighs 3.62 g, and the core is 0.95 g, its yield is 26.10% and does not produce double almonds. The length of the core is 20.15 mm and the width 13 , 02 mm.
Foreign Types of Almonds
Nonpareil
It produces a medium strong tree. It is a non self-inflicted type that needs foreign pollinators.The pollinators are Desmayo largueta, Desmayo rojo, Drake, Marcona and Ne Plus Ultra.Almond in the shell weighs 2.1 g, its length is 33 mm, the width is 19 mm and the thickness is 12 mm. The yield is 65-70%, and the double ratio is 20-25%.The inner almond weighs 1.4 g, its length is 25 mm, width 13 mm and thickness 8 mm. Its efficacy is good, it is sensitive to Monilia's disease. It can show bud disease.
Texas
Creates a strong tree. It is a non- self-inflicted type, and it needs foreign pollinators. The pollınators are Cristomorto, Ferraduel, Ferragnes, Ferrastar, Primorde, Tardive de la Verdiere, Tuono and Yaltine. The almond in shell have a weight of 3.0 g , length 29 mm, width 20 mm and thickness 17 mm. The yield is 50%, and the double ratio is 39%. The inner almonds weigh 1.5 g and have a length of 22 mm, a width of 13 mm and a thickness of 9 mm. Its efficacy is medium and sensitive to Monilia's disease.
No plus Ultra
Wood is medium and its efficiency is moderate to adequate. Since its shell is soft and light colored, it is preferable to sell shells. The interior is the fulfillment. Its internal efficiency is 50-60%, and the ratio of double almond is 15-30%. The occurrence of periodicity, early flowering, is selective in conditions of growth (especially humidity in the country). The pollinators are Peerless, Nonpareil, Ardechoise , IX L variety.
IX L
It originates from California. Inner yield is 45-55%. The double internal rate is very low, the tree grows very strongly. It is exposed to the danger of freezing because it flourishes a week before Nonparia. It is a non-fertile species. The pollinators are Ne Plus Ultra, Drake.
Peerless
The internal yield is low and is more sold in the shell. Inner almonds are large, medium quality, the double internal rate is 8-10%. The flowers immediately prior to Nonpareil and collected almost at the same time as Nonpareil.
Kapreli
İt is used in the chocolate industry.It was obtained by grafting.Smaller fruits are fed early. It is collected at the same time as Nonpareil.The pollinators are Texas, Nonpareil.
Jordanelo
It is obtained by grafting.The tree is growing rapidly.It regularly produces fruit.Flowers relatively early, simultaneously with the Ultra type. The pollinators are Ne Plus Ultra.
Ferraduel
Creates a powerful tree.Its pollinators are Ai, Ferragnes, Filippo Ceo, Tuono and Texas.Almond in a shell weigh 4.7 g,  they are 35 mm long, 22 mm wide and 17 mm thick. The yield is 28% and the double ratio is between 0-1%. The inner almond is weighing 1.3 g, its length is 25 mm, the width is 14 mm and the thickness is 8 mm. Its efficiency is good, it is resistant to Monilia's disease and it is susceptible to necrosis.
Ferragnes
Creates a medium-strong tree.It is a type that is not self-inflicted and requires foreign pollinators. The pollinators are Ai, Cristomorto, Ferraduel, Ferrastar, Filippo Ceo, Fra Giulio, Primorski,  Tardy Nonpareil, Tuono and Texas.Almond in the shell weighs 3.5 g, the length is 36 mm, the width is 21 mm and the thickness of 16 mm. The yield is 41% and does not duplicate. The inner almonds weigh 1.5 g and have a length of 29 mm, a width of 13 mm and a thickness 8 mm. Its efficiency is good, it is medium-resistant to Monilia's disease.
Ardechoise
Well developed, early bloom, good fertility, fruits mature at the end of August, the shell is soft, the internal yield is 60%, the double internal rate is 8% 10, the quality is medium.Pollinators: Marcona, Princess.
Languedoc
Flowering early, the internal yield is 40%, the double internal rate is 2%, and the fruits mature at the end of September.
Cristomorto
Creates strong trees. This type is not self-inflicted, it needs foreign pollinators.The pollinators are Rachele and Texas. The almond in the shell weighs 4.5 g, its length is 35 mm, the width is 23 mm and the thickness is 18 mm. The yield is 36% and the double ratio is 20-25%. Inner almond weighs 1.6 g and has a length of 23 mm, width 14 mm and thickness of 8 mm. Its efficiency is good and resistant to the disease of root rot.
Avola
Early flowering, it has a good yield, the shell is soft, the fruits mature at the end of August, the internal yield is 60%, the double internal rate is 8-10%.
Marcona
Flowering lasts for up to a month, so there is not much damage from frost. The internal efficiency is 35-40%, the double internal rate is less than 1%. It is partially self-inflicted.The pollinators are Drake, Ne plus Ultra
Drake
Makes trees of medium size. Middle late flowers. Not self-inflicted type. The pollinators are Marcona,Nonpariel and Peerless.The size of the fruit is 2.6 g, the length is 32 mm, the width is 20 mm and the thickness is 16 mm. The yield is 46%. The double almonds range varies between 20% and 40%. Inner almonds are 1, 2 g, 23 mm thick, Length 13 mm and 8 mm thick. The premier is an effective species, sensitive to Monilia and necrosis.
Primorski
Creates a medium strong tree. It is a species that is not self-inflicted, requires foreign pollinators. Its pollinators are Ai, Cristomorto, Ferraduel, Ferragnes, Tardive de la Verdiere and Texas.Almond in the shell weighs 2.6 grams, its length is 35 mm, its width is 20 mm and its thickness is 15 mm. Its thickness is 56% and does not have double almonds. Inner almonds weighing 1.5 g have a length of 27 mm, 13 mm width and thickness 8 mm. Its efficiency is moderate.
Tuono
Creates strong trees.Almonds in the shell weigh 3.8 g, the length is 35 mm, the width is 24 mm and the thickness is 18 mm. The yield is 41% and the double ratio is between 25 and 35%.The inner almond weighs 1.6 g, the length is 24 mm, the width is 14 mm and the thickness is 8 mm. Its efficiency is very good. It is sensitive to necrosis.
Yaltinski
Creates strong trees.This type is not self-inflicted, it needs foreign pollinators. The pollinators are Ferragnes and Flots. Almonds in the shell are weighing 2.0 g, they are 31 mm long and 19 mm wide and have a thickness of 14 mm. The yield is 53% and a double ratio is 10 %. The inner almond weighs 1.1 g, its length is 21 mm, the width is 11 mm and 8 mm thickness. Its efficiency is moderate. It is sensitive to Monilia's disease.
Picantili
Develops strong trees. It is a species that is not self-inflicted, it needs pollinators. The pollinators are Ferraduel, Ferrastar and Genco. The apple in the shell weighs 3.4 g, it is 36 mm in length, 23 mm in width and 17 mm in thickness. The yield is 46% and the double yield is 37%. The almond core weighs 1.6 g and has a length of 23 mm, a width of 14 mm and a thickness of 8 mm. Its fertility is medium and is resistant to Monilia's disease.

Genco
The almond in the shell weighs 3.4 g, it is 36 mm long, 23 mm wide and 17 mm thick. The yield is 46% and the double yield is 37%. The inner almond weighs 1.6 g and has a length of 23 mm, a width of 14 mm and a thickness of 8 mm. Its efficacy is moderate and resistant to Monilia's disease.

Garrigues

Medium late flowering is native to Spain. It is an effective type, it is found in the group of stone almonds. The yield is 15-18%. The pollinators are Tuono, Drake and Garriğnes.
SUPERNOVA ALMOND
The late flowering. The internal weight of the almond is 1.5 grams. The yield is 36%. The double almonds is 19%. It's a self-inflicted type.
The almond tree branches can withstand -25, -30 ° C in winter, and the resistance of floral buds to colds varies by periods. The bloom before bloom, -3, -3.5 ° C, at the end of bloom, -1.5 , -2 ° C, while small fruits can withstand -0.5-0.6 ° C. If the total temperature required for almond fruits during the season is insufficient, the development and fruiting of the fruits will not be complete. At the time when the blossoming begins rainy and foggy weather influences the work of bees, and also low temperatures affect germination, with this fertilization is not complete.Time like this opens the way to diseases such as Monilia.
High-Density Almond Tree Plantations
100% mechanization (pruning + harvesting)
Planting distance: 3-3,5X-1,2m
Varieties: Hard Shell and Self-Efficient
First harvest: 2 years
Complete yield: 4 years
Average data: 150-200kg / da (internal)

 
 Types
Soleta
It originates from Spain, its growth strength is medium, well branched and semi-vertical. It is suitable for planting in spar, its efficiency is 30-33%, and the shell is elliptical and hard, the bloom time is February 15-March.
Belona: Originated from Spain, the growth strength is medium, well-open growth and intense flowering. Suitable for planting in sparail, yield is 27-35%, it has a heart shape and hard shell.The flowering time is February 18-05. March.
Guara: It is native to Spain, it grows medium, it has the ability of good branching and open growth, it yields 30-35%, it is suitable for planting in sparelee, it has the shape of an elliptical heart and a hard shell, the flowering time is February 18 and 08 March.
Avijor: Originated from Spain, it has medium growth and branching strength. Its yield is% 30-% 35, it is suitable for planting in spar, it has the shape of an elliptical heart and a hard shell, the flowering time is February 28 and March 15.
Rootstocks
Rootstock: Hybrid Plum
Power: Low (60% lower than Nemaguard or GF677)
Compatibility: All varieties of almonds Perfect
Base water level: Tolerance high
Salinity: Moderately tolerant
Root-nematodes: Moderately resistant
Armillaria: Moderately tolerant
Other: Easily adapts to heavy soil