Pipe Types and fittings

Main pipe: Transfer of water to the collector
Distribution pipe: distribution of water to the side pipes
Irrigation pipe (without dripper) (straight pipe): Water transfer to the Lateral pipe
SLateral hose (with dripper): Distribution of water to droplets.
MAIN PIPE
He transfers water from the source to the distribution pipelines
Working pressure 6 atm consists of rigid PVC (built-in) or PE (on the surface) of the pipe
In small systems, the main pipeline can be placed on the surface of the floor. In these conditions, solid PE pipes are used.
Today, for underground lines and irrigation systems, high-pressure pipes of type PE-100 are used.
PE pipes are produced in certain pressure groups, but are generally 10 atm resistant irrigation pipes.

 
Manifolds PIPE
Transmits water from the main pipeline to the laterals. If the laterals are connected directly to the main pipeline, a valve must be placed per each lateral to control the water inlet.
This increases the system cost significantly and makes the system difficult to operate. Instead, a certain number of lateral pipelines are connected to the manifold pipeline and the connection of the manifold to the main pipeline is provided by a valve.
All of the laterals connected to the manifold pipeline form an operating unit When the valve at the beginning of the manifold is opened, all of the lateral parts of the operating unit are watered at the same time.
As with the main pipelines, manifold pipelines are also often embedded and formed from rigid PVC pipes. In small systems, manifold pipelines are sometimes laid on the soil surface and PE pipes are used. Manifold pipelines should be laid parallel to the leveling curves (inclined) or on a slope. The uphill slope should definitely be avoided. These lines may be perpendicular to the main pipeline or parallel.
Manifold pipelines are separated periodically by laterals, flow rate decreases towards end of manifold and drops to zero.
The main pipeline transmits water from one point to another (from the motopump to the manifold) and its flow is constant
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DRIPING PIPES
It consists of tubes on which drops are placed. It is placed on the surface of the soil and soft PE pipes are used for this purpose. Usually for each plant line one lateral pipeline is laid. Sometimes, for each plants row two lateral pipelines or for two plants row one lateral pipeline may be laid. Lateral pipelines should be laid parallel to the leveling curves or sloping downwards, as in manifold pipelines, and should be avoided by laying upwards.
 Lateral tubes are manufactured by placing drippers in the soft polyethylene pipes which are resistant to ultraviolet rays with diameters from Ø12mm to Ø20mm.
The most common types of these are 2 liters / hour and 4 liters / hour according to their flow rates. the sun's rays Should not enter the lateral pipes. For this purpose, they were produced in black color.
Lateral pipelines are capable of delivering homogenous flow rates to different distances according to the pipe internal diameter, the applied system pressure and the distance between the drippers.
Because of this, the number of manifold pipes in the field can be reduced and to a length of 300 meters lateral pipe can be laid at onece. This is the most important feature separating the drip irrigation system from other types of irrigation systems. By this way, the pipeline does not create an obstacle on the ground and provides an opportunity for all types of machinery.
Fittings
These are the parts that used for connecting the pipes in the system to each other, connecting the valve groups in the system to the main line and connecting the sprinkler heads in the system to the lateral lines.
This includes handcuffs, reductions, elbows, and parts, cutters, male adapters, female adapters, blind plugs, and so on link elements.
Adapters

Droppers
This is the most importat element of the system that must be selected the most carefully.
When the pressurized water in the lateral pipes passes through the dripper, the energy of the water (flow rate) is significantly slowen down by friction as it travels along the flow path in the dripper. As a result, the water emerges from the dripper with very small flow rates and infiltrates the soil. The drippers are usually produced in two types; mounted on the lateral pipe (on-line) and are mounted in the lateral tube (in-line). In drippers mounted on the lateral pipe, the dripper inlet is in the lateral length and the body is outside the tube. This type of dripper is orifice inlet and is usually short flow way. The energy of the water breaks through the orifice and flow path at the inlet. I n drip-tubes of factory-installed drippers, the drippers are placed in the lateral pipe at fixed intervals and longitudinally. The flow path is generally long. The water enters the dripper from the lateral pipe wall, its energy is broken along the long flow path and exits the lateral pipe.
Drip irrigation methods provide a large amount of water savings. More area is irrigated with same amount of water. This means increasing production and quality, or increasing national income.
The most important and most appropriate elements of the system.
When the water is under pressure in the lateral tubes passes through the drip, the water energy is severely interrupted by friction while traveling along the flow path in the dripper.
As a result, the water appears from drips with very low flow and infiltrates the ground.
Drippers are usually mounted on the side pipes (on-line) and in the side tube (in the line).
The most common types of drippers are those with 2 liters / hour and 4 liter / hour according to their flow rate.