Morphological and Biological Properties of Almond

Tree:Almond trees can reach up to 10 m.They grow vertically or splayed and they can  grow up to 6-8 m.In some cases the height of the trees can be up to 12 m.All buds grow on annual branches in the same season, and the growth of other branches makes the tree rich.
Almond's trees live on average for 50 years, and it is possible to see trees that are 100 years old.

 
Branches: They are often gray brown colored and branched.
Small Twigs:The colors of these branches are usually green. On them there are single, double, triple fruits or bouquets.
Branches of Bouquets: At the top of the tree there are 5-8 buds, the bunches are very short and the buds look like bouquets.
Fruit buds: They are lightly hairy towards the end and they have brown color. When a bud blooms, a flower appears.
Leaves: According to the varieties it is divided in large, medium and little. The color varies from light to dark green. The edges of the leaf are serrated.
Buds: Almond flower buds consist of 2-13 cm long bouquets on the branches of trees with branches of different ages.
In some varieties, the flower bud appears on the branches laterally. As the almonds mature, they also form new buds that will yield the fruit for the next year.
Root: The root type is deep. Since the number of root hair is small, there is a large loss in the transplanting.
Flowers:Flower structure 5 dishes + 5 petals + 20 male organs + 1 female organ.There are two eggs in the ovary. In general, one of them fertilizes and keeps the fruit. İt was observed the development of two ovaries in some variants, which gives a double fruit. The commercial value of the varieties that make up the double interior is low. Double almonds are not even used as seeds.
Fruits: Almond belongs to the group of hard-core fruits. The difference between the rest of the hard-core fruits is that the fleshy part will dry up to maturity and become skinny and will peel off. For this reason, the interior part of almonds is edible.
The fruits vary in size and shape. The fruit shell is green and hairy, the fleshy part is dry. During the maturit , this part is separated from the hard shell. The hard shell (core) according to variants has different sizes and hardness. The interior is sweet or bitter.
FERTILIZATION
n = 8. There is no infertility of the flower powder caused by triploidy and feeding. The species is Entomophil.Types such as Tuono, Genco, Lauranne, Supernova are self-inflicted.Practically they are considered self-sterile.In the garden should be planted varieties that flourish at the same time, varieties which fertilize each other and the ones which show compatibility.

SIGNIFICANCE of POLLINATION
Most commercial almonds do not match with self. In other words, when the almond variety is dusted with its own floral powder,it does not give products in a commercial sense. It is important that at least 2-3 types of flowers are mutually polished to get a lot of products from the almond fruit.
Almond trees in a small number of mutually beneficial fruit yields have been significantly reduced. In particular, in large almonds gardens during flowering in the rows of trees, a flower wall is created and bees do not fly to other types of trees, and it causes them to fly on the flowers in the same order. The most important thing is to ensure successful pollination. Therefore, the most important think in the commercial cultivation of almonds is to ensure successful pollination.
The following factors influence the cultivation of almond trees:
• Conflict between the period of flowering varieties
• Mutual compatibility of flower varieties
• The method of placement in the garden for mutual dusting
• The power of the bee community in the garden
• Weather conditions during the flowering period

Mismatch in periods of flowering varieties
When the periods of flowering of almonds in the garden coincide, the quantity of products is at the highest level. There is a difference about a month between the periods of flowering almond varieties. For this reason, in the selection of varieties, it is important to choose varieties that match the time of flowering which is necessary for successful pollination, and for giving good fruit. The varieties of almonds are grouped into groups of early, middle and late flowering. Taking into account spring frosts in our country, we should choose floral varieties that flowering late (Ferragnes, Ferraduel, Cristomorto, etc.). If one kind of flowering is finished and the leaves have appeared and if the other species has not yet woken it is impossible to get fruite. Varieties of Texas, which are used as pollinators for the Nonpareil variety, which is well known in Turkey and whose fruits have a thin shell,flowers about 1 week after Nonpareil. This may be the reason that the Nonparian variety yields less fruit. For the maximum yield, it is important that varieties flourish in the same period. In our region, varieties flourish in March.Gardens should be set with at least 2 varieties that flourish in the same period.

Mismatch with mutual pollination
Some varieties of almonds may show mismatch in interaction with some other varieties.Therefore, when choosing a variety, it is necessary to ensure that there are no differences between them.The almonds have property of self-incompatibility. If full  organs and cells of flowers normally develop,it can be happen that their not fertilized by own dust.This condition is purely genetic and controlled by the genes of disagreement (S genes).

Way of Setting Varieties in the Garden
Almost all almond researchers say that the main reason for getting a little fruit is that trees do not pollinate themselves well.Setting varieties along the order (consecutive) will make the fertilization of trees much better. When the varieties are planted in such a series, the bees spend about 1/4 of the flight time in the next order.

Bee Colon in the Garden
In the garden of almonds, the transfer of pollen from one variety to another is done by bees.The pollen flower of almonds is not spread by the wind, therefore pollination by the wind is not taken into account. Bee work is closely related to environmental conditions.Bees begin to fly when the air temperature rises above 12ºC.Bees do not fly in the rain or during strong winds (24 km / h). Bee activity decreases after dark weather.It is very important that bee communities are strong. And in the early spring when the flowers of almonds are blooming, it is mostly rainy and cold.Strong columns must have 8 frames in one hive. When the bees fly through the flowers, the pollen is attached to their bodies, and when they fly to the flowers of the other species, it allows them to transmit the pollen. Bees are more often fly on different flowers, or flowers of trees.This situation further increases the importance of the position of various varieties in the garden that are fertilized among themselves.The flower of almond is actually very attractive to bees and can attract bees looking for nectar even if the petals have fallen after rain or wind. The bee hives should be placed in open areas where they will have access to the morning sun. They should not have a touch with the wind. It is useful to clean the flowers around the hives in order to encourage the bees to fly. For good pollination in the garden of almonds should be placed,5 to 10 hives on 10 hectares of soil.
Weather Conditions during the Flowering Period
In the spring when the trees are blooming and when the weather is sunny, the almond grows abundantly. If the weather conditions are not appropriate, the bees can not blow off the pollen and there will no be the fruit. In particular, damage to flowers by frost is bad for producers.For this reason,almond trees should not be established in places where spring frosts often occur.Even where frosts are not so common, some careful producers try to ensure that cold air flows through the garden and when the frost appears on the slope does not damage the flowers.Flowers of almonds (anter) burst at temperatures higher than 18ºC and then disperse the pollen.However, during the constant rainfall, the almond flowers can late blow, or the pollen can be wash away, or it may be that the liquid at the top of the mark of the flower which can prevent the appearance of pollen. The stigm of flower accepts floral powders for 3-4 days after bloom.The cold time can slightly extend this period and the warm time can make it  shorter.For high germination of flower pollen,the air temperature should be between 10-20 ºC. An hour after the pollen is placed on the flower stamp, the pollen enters the stylus.Optimum temperatures of 20-30 ºC are required for germination of pollen grains, and at temperatures less than 15 ºC slowing down, while at temperatures above 30 ºC the pollen grain is destroyed.Fruiting ends in about 8 days after the flower is dusted.

THE IMPORTANCE OF EFFICIENT POLLİNATİON
Almonds are among the species that have a high fertility rate.The increase in the retention rate is proportional to active pollination.
Fruit formation:
• age of wood,
• rate of branching,
• number of pollinators and gardening methods,
• The period of flowering of almonds lasts 2-3 weeks,
• The first 3-5 days after flowering is especially important for active pollination.
Factors that affect pollination:
  • Flowering in the same period,
  • Time in the flowering period,
  • The existence of a colony of bees,
  •  Planting by Schedule.

One flower of almonds produces 0.7-1.2 mg. of pollen. 5 kg of pollen is available in the area of 1 hectare. In one box there are 1500 bees that carry 1/3 pollen.In the period of flowering on each tree can be seen 5 bees. Each tree has 20 thousand flowers and the first two days of flowering are capable of fertilization. The fertilazion should be done in 10 days from bloom.
Behavior of bees
The amount of pollen in the garden is affected by the distance of the hives from the pollen source.
Temperature: 12 ° C and more
Wind: 24 km / h
Cloudiness: Negative effect
Rain: Negative impact
Power of the Column
10 hectares need 4-7 bee hives. Each bee hive must have 8 bar.

Cloudiness
For good flying activity in marginal conditions,bee hives in large gardens should be arranged at intervals of 16-40 meters.

Different Types of Garden Arrangements and Choice of Bee Hives
An annual bee hive carries 85 kg of pollen.
One piece of Ferragnes palette is 8 mg of pollen.
The amount of pollen required for the development of 1 bee is 100 mg.
In regions with marginal climatic conditions, care should be taken with the number and place of the boxes.