Morphological characteristics of chestnut

Habitus
The chestnut tree is upright, the shell is reddish and the leaves are hard. The rocks form a high crown, which can be up to 20-25 meters in size.
Wild chestnut (Aesculus), the same seed is poisonous and completely different. They have nothing to do with the chestnut mentioned here. This chestnut is a poisonous plant that can not be eaten. However, it is very useful if used in a variety of ways. For example, if the chestnut is located between the clothes in the closets, it protects them from moths. Also, woolen fabrics can be protected from moths. The chestnut is also a type of naphthalene. It is very natural, highly effective and free material. It is used in cosmetic products and the pharmaceutical industry. It works against extended veins, hemorrhoids, skin stains and wrinkles on the skin. In addition, there are cream-chestnels and gels that can be used instead of drugs, to eliminate sputum and bronchial disorders, and also helps to reduce cough.
 

Root
The root system of chestnut is essentially a root type that penetrates deeper. This root is supported by a strong lateral root.

Tree and branches
There is a strong tree. The tree branching pattern shows the botanical symposium (growing lateral) branching. After the branches form in this way the main axis stops its growth, several lateral branches develop, replacing the main axis and a tree with a rich branch can be seen.

 

Leaves
The leaves of the chestnuts are large and serrated. The upper surface has a bright bottom surface with feathers. The annual shoots alternate (at different heights) with a scrub. The color of the leaves varies from pale green to dark green. The length, width, vein system on them, thickness, etc. properties vary by type.

Flowers
Chestnuts of the chestnut are of mixed type and form flower buds. There are two types of floral resin in chestnuts. The first is a male floral tassel that forms in the lower, middle and upper parts of the shoots. Only male flowers are on them. The second type of flowers is mixed. They include both male and female flowers. Appears on the top and bottom of the shoot. Male flowers are located in the lower part of the female and upper part of the mixed reservoirs.
Male flowers: In the form of clusters of male flowers, they are stacked along the axis by a tick, and each group consists of three separate six-layered leaves on the outside, and each male flower usually surrounds a five-part leaf. During flowering, the organs of male flowers stand out from the flower cover and attract attention with a bright yellow look. By insecticide explosion, the flower powder is distributed to the environment. This leads to pollination. 

Female flowers:Female flowers usually form a cluster of flowers with three, and one or more female flower clusters can form on one mixed tassel.Female flowers that appear in the third and fourth phases on flower-shaped flowers can blow without full ripening .The volume of female flower clusters is surrounded by the capsule of the primary (second) and secondary (second) prosthesis. Each female has 6 - 9 carpels in each flower, there are two sketches of seeds in each carpel. In normal conditions of pollination and fertilization, all three fruits in the bowl they also develop. However, they do not have seeds in unprocessed flowers. They can not develop. In some varieties, 5-7 fruits are in the benches.

Fruits
The fruits are in yellowish-green, barbed, chestnut shells in single or double triple balls.

Fertilization
Blossoming of early floral varieties in chestnuts begins in late May and early June. The flowering begins in mid-June and late bloom at the end of June. Early and late flowering begins in April and May. If the average temperature in these two months is greater than 13.5 oC starts early blossoming, and if it is low then late blossoms begin. High temperatures in the period of buds indicate flowering.
Usually before the flowering of male flowers, female flowers reach the maturity of the flower powder, and then the flowers in the male mixed strands. The rocks are usually transmitted by the wind, and in part by insects. Flower dust is carried by the wind of 60-65 meters. In order to achieve effective pollination, the pollinator's distance from the main type should be at the most at that distance.
Since the seeds, which are part of the consumed fruit, occur as a result of fertilization, the conditions of pollination and fertilization are of great importance for obtaining a normal product. Therefore, the necessary conditions are ensured to ensure good pollination in chestnut. This is achieved by applying a good pollinator plan.
Providing normal pollination, fertilization and fertility depends on the following conditions:

·         There must be at least two varieties that are in agreement with each other in the garden.

·         If the main varieties are infertile in terms of pollination, both pollinators must be placed in the garden at appropriate intervals to fertilize both varieties.

·         Although the distance of the main type of pollinator of the main type should be 60 m, this distance will be reduced to 20 m and pollination will be maximally increased. For this reason, the best tree is to be selected as pollinator in the third place in properly planned gardens.

·         In the case of unequally planted trees, the pollinator should be placed in the middle of each of the 8-10 trees based on this method.