Ecological Conditions of Chesnut

Climate requirements
In order to mature chestnut fruits, the total daily temperature from flowering to harvest should be 2000-2300 C. Chestnut can withstand winter temperatures up to 30 ° C. However, it is sensitive to the first frosts of spring and late autumn. Cold weather is not affected by high temperatures in the summer, than drought in the last seasons. Winter resistance is on medium level, but the exact numbers are not determined. It is resistant to high temperatures and susceptible to drought. If annual precipitation is less than 600 mm, it should be strengthened by irrigation. The road can be grown without water at places with annual precipitation of 600-1200 mm. Therefore, rainfall is important for breeding chestnut. Depths during the flowering period adversely affect the behavior of the fruit.

Soil requirements
Chestnut is a rooted plant. The soil where the garden is thought to have been established should be loose and deep. It is advisable to select soils rich in potassium heavy, clay soils with low watertightness should not be desirable. Usually, this type of soil is easier to infect diseases In this sense, the amount of lime in the soil is more than sufficient, and the importance of potassium can easily be taken. It is estimated that Ph will be about 5.5-6 to be sufficient.

Reproduction
Dipping, steel rooting methods are used, but the most applied and the most reliable method is the production of grafted seedlings.

Rootstocks
The main characteristics required in rootstock,is good compatibility with varieties, resistance to environmental conditions, droughts and diseases. In chestnut, the best coincidence in terms of rootstock-yield is among the same species.Therefore, if we only consider the consideration, it is seem that the most suitable rootstocks for our varieties can be selected among our own chestnut types.However, it is commonly known that European chestnuts are susceptible to illnesses of the ink. In European countries, some hybrid types have been developed that are resistant to disease of ink and which are compatible with local types of culture.
However, their degree of concurrence with our varieties is not known.

Rootstocks  which will be used used must have the following characteristics:
·Seeds should have high germination power.
·The development of the seedling should be uneven and strong, reaching maturity to clamp at the end of the first year of growth.
Other roorstock wich are  used are Maravell and Marigoule. The bone taken from them is rooted and cultivated on them.

Production of seedlings
Chestnut seeds should be subjected to a 3-month overlap at 0-4 ° C in a wet environment to achieve high germination power. The result is a 90% germination. Seeds should be sprayed against fungal diseases.
Seeds are planted at a distance of 70-80 cm in order of 30 cm. After the planting, put the soil from 8-10 cm to the top, which increases germination. During the planting of seeds ,if we cut end of tap root that lasted during the planting it allows forming of fringe root  .
After planting, watering, fertilizing, digging and so on. processes aredone to ensure the proper development of seedlings.

Immunization should definitely be preferred by budding. The following points should be taken into

consideration when make budding for chestnuts;
In the spring from good-sized trees without disease before the buds swell (March month), the grafting branches should be stored in a refrigerator (2-3 ° C) in a moist perlite or pure sand.
· Budding should be made after the foliation of the rootstocks and when the temperature of the cold passes and the air is partially warmed (1st or 2nd weeks of May).
·Buds are taken (usually T-method)  from previously preserved buds.
· After completion,the main bud of rootstock is cut off. When it starts with a grafting  it  will be cut of.
• In the case of grafted seedlings, watering, fertilizing, hogging, etc.must be done.

Seedlings that are often removed in autumn are immediately planted. It is better not to leave the planting process for spring as much as possible.
Chestnut garden
Land preparation
When choosing a garden, two things should be considered.The land and place.The soil must be leaky, well-ventilated and deep. Severe soils are very dangerous.Pit valleys where the cold is collected are dangerous for chestnut farming.The gardens should be placed at a height of at least 400 m from the sea.

Planting seedlings
For normal pollination, fertilization and fruit relationships, the flowering time should be planted in at least two appropriate intervals. For this, every third tree must be a pollinator.
Chestnut is mainly applied to the planting range of 10-12 m. Trees can be up to 15 m in normal range. A square triangular shape can be applied according to the soil structure. The seeds to be planted in the seedlings open at a depth of 40x50 cm. 150-50 g of complex fertilizer is placed in the seedlings. This fertilizer is placed in caves and mixes.
Then a few shovels are thrown on this mixture. If the roots touch the fertilizer, the roots of the seedlings can be damaged and dried.

Chestnut Care
Soil treatment

Soil cultivation has many advantages, from soil moisture protection to weed control.
If soil treatment is not completed, mulching for moisture storage needs to be done. As for mulching material, hay and similar materials should be used. For the first 4-5 years, mulching should be done in a way that the crown can be at the bottom of the tree and 3 to 4 cm thick.

Mulching is the placing of any natural or synthetic material on the ground.
Mulching;
It regulates the soil temperature,
It reduces the evaporation of the soil surface,
Maintains the root.
Weed growth is under control.
The oyster of wood, sawmill, leaves, stems, straw, grass, cut corn stalk, pulp and fertilizer are organic mulch.
Rock, sand, gravel, ash, dust, inorganic mulch.
Paper, plastic foils, plastic parts, plastic foam, aluminum layer, asphalt and oils are synthetic mulch.

Ideal mulch;
Cheap and easy to apply
It should stay in place.
Reduces evaporation in the soil.
Allows water to flow quickly into the ground.
Adjust the soil temperature.