Production and Marketing
The production of chestnuts in the world is relatively small compared to other fruits. On the other hand, especially after the 1990s, production has increased significantly. In fact, production of 594398 tonnes in 1961 in 1970 was 565272 tons, in 1980 472013 tons, 1990 484276 tons. and 937655 tons in 2000. For the first time in 2002, production reached 1 million and in 2010. has been increased to 1958547 tons. It is important to note that in 49 years between 1961 and 2010. there has been a triple increase .Despite the decline in production in some European countries, which have a stance in previous periods, the increase in the world is mainly due to the increase in Chinese production. Chestnut production is mainly done in countries in the natural distribution area of chestnut. The Asian continent is the first in production and 87.5% of the world's chestnut production comes from this continent. On this continent, China, South Korea, Turkey and Japan are the major producer countries. Europe has a share of 8.3% in production. The main producers on this continent are the countries of the Mediterranean region such as Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece and France. The continent of America is the last with a share of 4.2%. The main country producing this continent is Bolivia
In the world, chestnuts are not as significant as other fruit varieties. Most of the produced chestnut is consumed on the domestic market of the countries of the producers, and only 6.7% is exported. Since 2009, China has taken the first place in export with 46703 tons. Other large exporting countries, South Korea (12300 tons respectively), Portugal (7154 tons), Spain (6957 tons) and Turkiye (2919 tons) .
Turkey since 2010, with approximately 60 thousand tons produced (59 171 tons) after China and S. Korea became third largest producer in the world. 3.02% of chestnuts produced in the world come from Turkey. Production of chestnuts, which in 1961 amounted to 38,400 tons, has been continuously growing until 1992 and reached the highest level of production with 85,000 tons. However, in the following years,it was followed with an unstable course. Indeed, although the number of chestnut trees has remained constant over the years, it has been observed that there is an increase / decrease in production (Table 4). In addition, yield per tree is unstable. In fact, in 1992, it was 44 kg, while in the following years there was a decline. There is no doubt that illnesses of inks and chest cancer have a major impact on this reduction. As in the rest of the world, the fight against these diseases in our country is not enough. The damage from chestnut branch cancer has particularly affected the Marmara region, and thus their effectiveness has been reduced.
Data on the value of chestnut production in Bolivia in 1961, 1970 and 1980 were not available.
In our country, chestnut production areas were harvested in the Black Sea, Aegean and Marmara regions (Figure 1). There are about 2.4 million chestnuts on the surface of about 118 thousand decars. Aydın, Kastamonu, Izmir, Sinop, Bartın, Bursa, Balıkesir, Zonguldak and Manisa have the highest number in terms of the number of trees and the amount of production (Table 5).
Production of chestnels in Turkey 2010. 57.1'lik% (31 688 tons) are from the part of the Egej region. In this region, the area where production is the most intensive is the area between the Mentes Mountains in the south and the Aydın Mountains in the north. In this area, the Büyük Menderes and Küçük Menderes fields are produced on the slopes of the mountains Bozda andlar, Aydın and Menteşe Mountains. The province with the largest production in the region and the country is Aydın. Indeed, in the same year, 33.5% of Turkey's total production (18 605 tons) comes from this city. This province has production in all districts except Söka, Kuşadası and Germencika. In particular, 15.4% of the volume of Nazilli makes (8559 tons) of Turkish production.
The annual production in Izmir, which is one of the other provinces in the region, is 8659 tons. With this production volume, it occupies the third place in the production of our country after Aydin and Kastamon. Areas where production is widespread has increased in Beydağ, Ödemiş and Tire District. Manisa with 2050 tons of production manufactures 3,750% of chestnut production in the country . More than 90% comes from the districts of Sarigol, Demirci, Turgutla and Alaşehir. Kütahya is one of the important provincial production regions with a production of 2374 tons. In this province, all production is done in Simav and Gediz districts.
Duzce, a district of Bolu province, was made province in 1999 .İn the same year, Bolu Akçakoca, Cumayeri, Imilimli, Gölyaka, Gümüşova, Kaynaşlı and Yığılca were included to the Düzce district. For this reason, data from the period 1991 and 1995 before the province of Düzce were data from the province of Bol. In fact, chestnut production in the cities that are now in Düzce was not made in Bol after 1999
After the Aegean region, the region with the most chestnut production is the Black Sea. 35% of our country's production (19372 tons) is provided from this region. Our biggest producer province in the region is Kastamonu with 9225 tons. In this province, which is the second in the country production, the chestnut production area is concentrated in the coastal area. Inebolu in this section meets 11.5% of Turkey's production with 6350 tons of production.The other districts beside Cide (2000 tons) and Bozkurt (600 tons),are not important in provincial production.
Sinop is the second important producer province of the region after Kastamonu. Its annual output is 4504 tons.Chestnut productions were collected in the province of the Sinop Peninsula, Ayancik, Turkeli and Erfelek districts . All of these districts have more than 1,000 tons of production. Bartin and Zonguldak provinces are also important in regional production. Especially, the Kurucaşile district in Bartın gives almost half of the production. In Zonguldak, the central district and Ereğli have an important place in production. The other producer provinces in the region (Samsun, Düzce and Rize) have a production of 1735 tons.
7.9% of Turkey chestnut production (4389 tons) are covered by the Marmara region. The most important producer in our region is Bursa, which is famous for its chestnuts. In the province where 1455 tons of chestnut production is realized annually, İnegöl, Kestel and Orhaneli districts are important in production. The other important producer province of Marmara is Balıkesir with 1,449 tons. In this province, chestnut production areas were collected in the foothills of Balıkesir field and Simav mountains. More than 80% of production in Çanakkale is obtained from Bayramiç district. Istanbul, Kocaeli and Sakarya provinces have 775 tons of production
Conclusion and Suggestions
Our country is one of the important producer countries in the world chestnut production. However, as in many other fruit species, it is seen that the potential of chestnut production has not been evaluated sufficiently. As a matter of fact, the production which was over 80 thousand tons at the beginning of 1990s decreased gradually and today it has decreased to 60 thousand tons level. Undoubtedly, the most important factor in this decrease is the diseases that damage the chestnut trees. In the future period, production will be reduced even if deadly diseases are not solved. In order to increase production, it is inevitable to take some measures.