Disease and pest control

Disease and pest control
The fight against various diseases and pests that are a problem in chestnut should not be ignored. Otherwise, there are inevitable major economic losses. A cultural and medical struggle is necessary.

Chestnut Cancer
Chestnut Cancer is a fungal disease. Most fungi are spread most with humans impact.İt also spread by Combating non-sterile tools,and by the technique of incorrect vaccination and poles used during harvest and with other animals such as wind, insects, birds, rodents.Cancer pore bursts into the tree through the wounds .In the tissues it causes damage and it  becomes red color. When cancer is developing, the branch or body surrounding by it dies completely. Cancer is not visible in the root, so the tree can survive.
                  


Open wounds for any reason are the entrance to the illness. Before the collapse occurs, the part where is a cancer swelles ,cracks become more pronounced.The branches of the disease can be seen on the top of the edema and on the root.
The fight must be carried out by trained people.
Combat work should be done using the appropriate tools.
Tools used in combat must be disinfected in every wound.
All types of wound surfaces that open during mechanical combat should be applied Eyüp-Ardıç tar.


MECHANICAL FIGHT
More than 70% of dried trees should be cut off.
The cancerous branches should be cut 20-30 cm behind the cancerous part and removed.
The cancerous parts of the tree and large branches should be scrapped from that area.
Tools used in mechanical control must be disinfected with bleach.
All types of wounds and cutting surfaces should be closed by applying Skystone and Tar thesher.
The resulting new shoots should be diluted and maintained.

BIOLOGICAL FIGHT
Hypovirulent races are used in biological control.
This is the most effective form of battle to date.
In these races there is a call virus.
This virus can infect a virulent type that causes cancer, and as a result, cancer can be cured.
We can call this type of vaccination. In order for the vaccination to be successful, the hypovirulent race to be applied must be compatible with cancer on the tree.
For this reason, samples taken separately from the carcinogenic part of each tree must be diagnosed in  laboratories for this purpose by our General Forest Administration and hypovirulent production should be produced accordingly.
The hypovirulent tissue of the disease produced by the experts should be applied with appropriate tools.

Helmut Ecker, one of the successful chestnut breeder of seedlings in Austria, developed the 2 hybrid types (castanea sativa x castanea mollissima),Which are resistant to the biggest problem of chestnut and that is branch cancer.He continues to work on crenata types.and on the crossing.

Ink disease
The chestnuts in the diseases of the ink cause (Phytophthora cambivora Petri). It is a disease that causes the collection of leaves and chlorosis, collapse and the formation of cracks in the root o, flame necrosis under the shell and completely dry trees in the next stage.
In Bursa, the most prominent cultural site of chestnuts in the Marmarian region, the disease is thought to have existed since 1945 and even earlier.
With this disease, when we open the surface of the root of the tree, black rot and spots are noticeable. When we remove the bark in the root , you see a blubber fluid between the shell and the tissue. Transmission bundles are clogged and the leaves are yellow.
This disease is a rootvand root throatvdisease. Disease-causing spores are transmitted to the plant through the wounds in the root and root throat.The disease reacts slowly in young trees and quickly in the old ones. Leaves of young trees caught suddenly become full and dried. In old trees, drying starts from the top. İt slowly progresses toward divisions. Leaves of infected trees remain small. The chestnut garden should not be planted in a heavy waterproof land. Substrates Maravel and Marigoule are known for their resistance to this disease.

Gall bee
DESCRIPTION
Chestnut bee is native to China.
It has also been identified in some European countries.
In our country, it was first seen in 2014 on chestnut trees in forest areas.

BIOLOGY
The eggs are oval, transparent.
The larvae are 2.5 mm in length and white in color.
In the first period of the larvae they spend the winter at the root.
Ergin is 2.5-3mm tall black and its legs are brown.
It reproduces without fertilization and produces progeny annually.
Ergina flight lasts from mid-June to late July.
Can leave more than 100 eggs.
They change the color of eggs when they go to the seed.
At the end of April, when the buds begin to grow, a green or pink color begins to form, about 0.4-2 cm in diameter. Adults can fly long distances.
Symptoms
After cracking buds, a red or green gal (hour) formation is visible.
 

Visitors
She only visits chestnut .
 

Damage
The leaves of chestnuts and leaves (ur) create the growth of shoots and prevents the fruit's position.
Service reduces the area of photosynthesis.
80% leads to a loss.
Fruit production is reduced and the tree can die.
 
Fight
The most effective fight is quarantine.
It is necessary to cut  trunk of tree and throw its parts.
The rate of success in chemical control is very low.
It can be kept under the pressure of production and the release of its natural enemies.
After the discovery in Turkey, the Ministry of Forestry and Agriculture in cooperation with Italy started the production of parasitoids in biological laboratories. Parasitoids Torymus Sinensis began to be released into the forest regions In 2015, the Ministry of Health left 4,000 and 500,000 useful parasitoids in 2016.u forest

İn French INRA research instituteby crossing  is obtained hybrid (c.sativa x C, crenata),and its even resistant to gall bees.Leaves of this type Bouche de Betizac.
Pests
Worms in Chestnut (Cydiasplendana)

They penetrate into the fruit shell and enter into it by destroying it. It causes the fruits that are damaged to be completely emptied and lose market and foreign sales. It gives progeny annually. In principle, larvae, which have not finished their development during harvest and are buried after harvest, end their development in the warehouses and destroy the fruit.
Fight
a-Phases of chestnut processing and leaves in the garden must be destroyed immediately.
b-The processing stages of the chestnut substrate should be of concrete and the walls should be well-omalterized.
c- Places for burial in months after the sale of the product; Especially in June, worms should often be destroyed.
To get all the worms found in the pit down to the ground (or concrete floor), wait at least 1.5-2 months between harvest and sale.
For medical combat: Just before harvesting, the soil should splash. After this spraying for 20-25 days, if there is humidity, another spray should be made.