Almond Disease and Pest Control

Cancer of Root
The cause of the disease is the bacteria called Agrobacterium tumefaciens.This bacteria forms the urethra in the root, It greatly inhibits the activity of nutrients through conductive vessels.The leaves become yellow, the development of the plant is slow, in the tree and branches there is a tissue that reminds on chewing gum and the trees eventually dry. In the summer months, it is necessary to open the roots of the trees, cut the pieces and clean them to healthy tissue.In the cleaned wound, apply 5% (copper sulphate).After drying the solution, the open root is covered with soil.
Rotten of Roots
The cause of the disease is the fungus called Armillaria mellea .This leaf causes the truncation of the trees in the root and drains the tree. In the second year the leaves are yellow and declining.In the third year the branches begin to dry. In the fourth year, the whole tree is dried. The root of the dry trees should be removed from the ground, and the lime should be poured into it. If the disease is infected, the diseased roots should be cut and scraped, and then poured with 5% bordeaux mixture, 2% copper sulphate and covered with a paste for vaccination.
Curlyness (Taphrina deformans (Berk.) Tul.)
The disease is also called leaf bite and clough. It also causes damage to flowers, fruits and young branches.In the spring,the first leaves after infection become swollen and curly.The dark brown trail appears along the edges,the center of the leaves becomes pale green and dries.The leaves become red, yellow and light pink. Chlorophyll disappears.
Control:% 91-98 success can be achieved by using 1-1.5% of Bordeaux mixture or 0.4% of prepared copper preparations 2-3 weeks before the buds open
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Rupture of leaf(Coryneum beijerinekli Oud)
This disease, known as red spots,occurs in areas where moisture is increased. Sometimes in the spring and early summer,although humidity is not high, the rate of development of the disease in all areas can be increased.Disease can be seen on leaves, shoots, buds, flowers and fruits of the plant. In the spring,on leaves appear red-brown spots that turn into a circle.On the leaves there are only holes. As the size of the stain can be smaller than 1 mm, so can be larger than 2mm.
Control: I. Application of% 2 bordeaux mixture in autumn when leaves fall, II. Primordial% 1 of bordeaux mixture in spring when flower buds swollen, III. Adoption of% 1 bordeaux mixture or 0,4% copper oxide. is when 70-80% of the leaves from the crown are declining IV. Adopted when the fruits are growing and the medications from III. Primary are used.
Rust of Leaf (Polystigma ochraceum (Wahl.) Sacc.)
It can be seen in the areas where plum and almonds are grown.The disease has got this name by the stains appearing on the list. On the leaves, stretches of 3 cm are developed.The leaves begin to glow first and after they change the color into a light red. These stains were thickened on the leaf and bulging.Rarely sick leaves fall out early.The parasite that spills fungi over the leaf in the spring forms asporesores that infect young leaves.Summer spores appear on the back of the leaf, and spreads by rain drops.
Control: Leaf diseases should be collected and destroyed.1 Disinfection should be done when the leaves of the crown fall, II. Disinfection should be done 2 weeks after the first disinfection. For the disinfection, organic fungicides are used.
Downy of Leaf (Sphaerotheca pannosa (Walt.) Lev.)
The first symptoms begin on the upper surface of the leaves in the form of yellow spots, then the lower side appears to be covered with a layer of white flour. By progressing the disease, the leaves are curled, drained and decay. On the fruits, the light of the colored surface appears, and the upper layer beneath them shoots. In the fruit affected by this disease, the tops are twisted. Also, these fruits can not form a flower fruit. If the leaf is affected by this disease while the  is still moist, dirty, brown spots develop.This disease leads to product degradation and degradation of growth. The illness likes warm, humid and indoor air.
Bark beetle: (Scolytus spp.)
Of these insects, most of the damage is mostly trees of apples, pears, cherries, plums, peaches, apricots, quinces, almonds (S. amygdali), hazelnuts and chestnuts. These insects create nests in trees and tree parts It lays larvae in the nest. Established larvae form a secondary nest 10-20 cm long. When the orifice of the tree that damaged this insect can be seen larvae. These insects often attack the abandoned and weak trees and cause more damage to such trees. The trees are attacked by The sides of this insect change the way of feeding and dry. Such branches can break even in the case of a small wind. The fruit's fruit falls and if something does not happen on this issue within 2-3 years, the wood is dried.
Control: Because it causes more damage to poor trees, pruning, watering, fertilizing and soil treatment should be done in the best way. Harmful and dirty branches should be removed from the garden and burned.
Chemical fight:
1. Disinfection: In the spring, April - May, on dried branches as soon as insects appear,
2. Disinfection: 10-15 days after the first disinfection,
3. Disinfection: As soon as the insects are seen in July-August in relation to the second period,
4. Disinfection: 10-15 days after the third disinfection.
Worms (Eurytoma amygdali Enderlein Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)
One of the most important pests of almonds is the almond worm. When an adult female leaves an egg in a hole, the hole that has originated in time is closed. The exposed larva is kept almond seed. This type of fruit by drying changes color. Larva spend the winter in the fruit. In the spring from the fruit comes out in the form of adult butterflies.
Fight
The most effective fight is during combating the burning of damaged fruits or during the winter (including those on the trees). The chemist's struggle begins in the spring and the first spraying occurs when the butterflies occur. The helixes appear when the immature almond reaches a length of 7-8 mm. Depending on temperatures, the output of the butterfly lasts 20-25 days. Chemicals use chemicals such as Azinfos methyl, carbaryl, deltamethrin, methiocarb, etc. In order to determine the time and duration of the first adult product, 300-500 fruits are placed in the cage in the garden. When the first adult female is born, the first disinfection is performed.
Mechanical fight
During the harvest of almonds that are infected should be ignited and the fruits that are damaged should be buried deep in the ground.
Capnodis Teneprionis
It is an important subterranean pest, a bug called Capnodis teneprionis, is harmful to the green part of the fruit. It destroys the plant by crushing the green part, causing the most damage to the seedlings that are aged 1-4. The node creates nests near the root of the tree. Most of all, in particularly neglected and weak trees. Therefore,maintenance should be performed without interruption. The "methyl" combination of drugs is used against this type of pest. The pest survival that damages the leaf and offspring, plantations are pollinated once in the second and third year.If there are signs of the disease described above, assistance should be sought from organizations such as the Provincial Directorate for Agriculture or the Faculty of Agriculture and public-private legal entities.
Peach Moth: (Cydia molesta)
In winter, the larvae pass under the bark of a tree. The butterflies begin to appear in the spring. When the temperature of 15 ° C begins, the butterflies begin to lay eggs on the lower surface of the leaves. The eggs are spilled in the spring for 15-20 days and in the summer of 3 to 5 days. First, they damage the shoots and later damage the fruits . Larvae enter the fruits of the fruits and leave the eggs along the branch. The damaged shoots are dried and broken. They usually enter the fruit through the handle. It feeds and develops in the flesh of fruit around the core, and leaves the same hole. You can see the mucus around the hole.

Fight
As a cultural precaution, dried branches must often be cut and destroyed. Biological, there are many natural enemies. It can be used to determine the time of the escape and the amount of larva. In March, the care of the garden begins. When the larva occurs, a fight begins. After 15 days, another disinfection can be done.Disinfection; Insecticides with active substances are used (Azinfos Methyl, Carbaryl, Deltamethrin, Methiocarb, Triazophos, etc.)
Bacterial Burns
It is a very dangerous disease that can cause drying of the whole tree. In particular, tissue scars that can occur in the plant cause disease. Although the disease is not seen in the seedlings, it shows the effect after planting in the garden. On leaves, young shoots and flowers can see the black spots. The bolster is particularly effective in the case of a lack of nitrogen.
Fight
In early stages of the disease, removal of carcinogenic branches can be recommended. The primordial mixture in the early stages of the plant provides relief from the disease. However, no measures and chemical plants in the future can save the plant.
Bacterial Cancer (Pseudomonas syringae pv. Syringae Van Hall.ve. Morsprunorum Wormald.)
Bacterial cancer is one of the most important diseases of hard fruits in many countries that deal with fruit growing. These bacteria are affected by code, infected pores, leaves and active cancer, and can be seen in infected or healthy branches and pores. In addition, winters are an epiphytic in the branches and eyes of infected or healthy trees. In addition, it was determined that winter is epiphytic in weeds and non-host plants. Bacteria enter branches through infected pores, through wounds that arise during pruning, through leaves and all kinds of wounds. Carcinomas occur at the end of winter and at the beginning of early spring. In the spring, mucus can be seen on the branches. Burns are common on standing branches. When reminded of sick branches it can be noticed that they are brown in color. Also, flowers and leaves can be affected by the disease. In highly infected trees, the number of flowers is very low. On the leaves there appear holes. The fruits can form dark brown flecks of depths of 2-3 mm. Stains can be noticed in the mucus.
Fight
Cultural Measures: In the production of fruits only healthy substrates and coils should be used. When establishing a garden, all healthy seedlings should be planted. Mortars susceptible to diseases should be used in the production of inoculation with disease-resistant media. The affected parts must be removed from the garden by cutting.
Chemical fight: In autumn, when leaves begin to fall, at a dose of 1%; and in the spring, when bud buds are used, a dose of 0.6% of Bordeaux mixture should be used.
Cancer of Branches of Almonds